Translation with SYSTRAN Links

Radio

How to receive France Inter even after the stop of its diffusion in long waves?

This decision of Radio France was made in agreement with the Government.

The CSA is attentive with the concerns of the listeners who anticipate problems of reception. If you did not have the occasion yet of it, we invite you to consult My Radio FM or the tool placed at the disposal by Radio France to identify the frequencies which you are likely to receive. If you test the frequencies indicated by these tools, do not forget to deploy the antenna of your FM receiver and to test several orientations of this antenna, or to use your FM antenna of roof if it exists.

In addition, you are perhaps able to receive France Inter by other networks that FM: France Inter can be listened live on Internet and figure often in the television offers by satellite, cable or in the multiservices offers (offers known as “triples play”) Internet access providers. The listening of a service of radio by these networks necessarily does not answer the whole of the uses generally observed in France (listening at the house, of mobility, on the workplace…).

For any complementary question about this subject, you can consult the website of Radio France (http://www.radiofrance.fr/extinction-des-ondes-longues), which also set up a specific call number, 01 56 40 40 50, that you can call of the Monday to Friday of 8:30 to 19:30.

Why isn't there in France of radio diffused on the DVB?

You wonder about the absence of radios on the DVB. Here some brief replies:

 

  • the standards used for the DVB and the regulation framework allow indeed the diffusion of radios (in digital mode) on the DVB.

 

  • For as much, no radio is actually diffused in DVB and SCUMS did not launch appeals for the candidatures so that radios are diffused on the DVB:
  1. - the law of September 30th, 1986 relating to the freedom of communication, that the CSA implements, provides that the CSA allots a significant share of the frequency band 174-225 MHz to the diffusion in digital mode by terrestrial hertzian way of the radios. Since the passage to the digital whole of television, this waveband is not used any more for the diffusion of television services in France. SCUMS thus privilege the waveband 174-225 MHz for the diffusion of radios in digital mode compared to that currently used by the DVB and launched 3 appeals for the candidatures which related to the zones of Paris, Marseilles, Nice, Lille, Lyon, Strasbourg, Rouen and Nantes. The diffusion is already effective in Paris, Marseilles and Nice.

 

  1. - The waveband used for the diffusion of television is the object of a reduction (transfer of band 700 MHz to the mobile operators of electronic communications) and the induced operations of refitting must be completed in June 2019. This reduction of approximately a constrained third of the waveband mechanically more strongly the spectrum in a context of maintenance amongst televisual services and of the quality of the diffusion. The CSA thus chose until now to maintain the attribution of these bands to the services of television, the radio operator profiting mainly from two other frequency bands, the above mentioned band 174-225 MHz and the band FM.

 

  1. - This choice of SCUMS not to put radios in DVB rests not only on legal but such economic and technical considerations. Taking into consideration European country other, the French televisual landscape until 2005 was more restricted whereas the French radiophonic landscape was on average developed more. The French radiophonic landscape consists of radios with national vocation and local radios. The DVB could meet only partially the needs for certain radios (the radios with national vocation) but cannot meet the needs for the local radios. In addition, the technical choices of the DVB currently in force do not allow a good reception of mobility but the reception of the radio mobility is a prerequisite for the radio: the reception of mobility corresponds to approximately 30% of the volume of the listening of the radio according to Médiamétrie. Radios are diffused by satellite or are included in the offers known as triples play (Internet access, fixed telephony and television) of the Internet access providers. For as much, the listening of the radio thanks to these modes of diffusion remains a marginal use. Lastly, no radio appeared near SCUMS to be diffused on the DVB.

Which is the procedure to be followed to obtain an authorization for a radio which will diffuse by hertzian way?

The procedure of authorization of the permanent private radios in frequency modulation comprises several stages:
 - the CSA publishes a call to candidatures which specifies the geographical areas, the frequencies being able to be allotted and the categories of radios concerned (the definition of five categories for the private radios aims at guaranteeing the diversity and the balance of the radiophonic landscape in each area);
 - at the end of this call, it stops the list of the admissible candidates then carries out their selection;
 - after having signed a convention with each operator, it delivers the authorizations of diffusion for one five years maximum duration. These authorizations can be taken back except call to the candidatures within the limit of twice and for one duration five years each time.
An operator can, in certain conditions, to request from the CSA a change of the holder of the authorization and category without resorting to the procedure of appeal to candidatures. The CSA defined the methods of them on July 29th, 2004.
  

Consult the topic on the FM radios. 

Where to get to me a list of the radios diffused in my area?

You can online consult the list of the radio frequencies put on this site which will give you, by department, by station or frequency, the list of the radios, their zone of diffusion and their frequency. 

In addition, the CSA gives you in his directory of the operators the contact of the principal stations of radio.

Which are the rules imposed on the radios as regards protection of the minors?

The radio is very appreciated media of the teenagers. They listen to mainly stations proposing music, games, hoaxes telephone, information and animation. These emissions are programmed in the slices of strong audience, the morning between 6 a.m. and 9 hours and the 9 p.m. evening at midnight.

The programs of free antenna diffused in evening also meet a sharp success near these listeners because they enable them to be expressed freely on the topics of their choice. The subjects relating to the love affairs and sexuality constitute a significant proportion of the discussions which take place during these emissions. But the informative and teaching character is not always the element dominating in the answers given to the interrogations of the listeners: it is often occulted with the profit of a sometimes doubtful humour, which is not inevitably in adequacy with the interrogation expressed by the listener or the listener.

With the listening of these programs, the Council noted that certain remarks were in contradiction with the concept of human dignity, and that others were likely to run up against the sensitivity of the 16 year old minors because of their crudeness, even of their obscenity, and degrading representation of sexuality. If the adults can easily take distance with respect to this kind of matter, the teenagers and the preadolescents, by nature more vulnerable, are likely to be disturbed about it.

In accordance with article 15 of the law of September 30th, 1986, the Council is guaranteeing child protection and adolescence in the programs put at the disposal of public by a department of communication audio-visual. It must in particular take care that no program likely to harm blooming physical, mental or moral of the minors is not diffused on a radio, except when it is ensured by the choice of the hour of diffusion that minors should not be likely to hear them.

According to the terms of the deliberation of the Council of February 10th, 2004, no radio must diffuse between 6 hours and 22:30 of programs likely to run up against the sensitivity of the listeners of less than 16 years.

The pornographic programs or of very great violence are, as for them, the object of a total ban of diffusion because of the absence of allowing technical device, in the case of the radios, to make sure that only the adults can reach it.

On the base of the law of September 30th, 1986 and deliberation of February 10th, 2004, the action of the Council is also based on the commitments outstanding by the radiophonic operators during the signature of their conventions.

The majority of the recent interventions of the Council (letters at the stations in question, formal notices and financial sanctions) related to remarks relating to the sexuality, evoked in raw and obscene terms, bearing reached with the dignity of the woman. Among the other reasons for intervention of the Council can be also raised the remarks incentive with violence, being able to cause the fear, or encouraging the listeners with practices or behaviors delinquent or unpatriotique.

 

Consult the deliberation of the CSA of February 10th, 2004 on the protection of the minors to the radio.

 
 

How to create a webradio?

RadioMeuh, Dauphine One Air, RFM Innovation, Heard FM 2, Arte Radio… Associative, commercial or public, the webradios have existed for almost twenty years. But what does one call webradio precisely and how to create one of them?

A webradio is a radio diffused on Internet in streaming, proceeded technical of reading uninterrupted which allows the listening or the visualization of a file as temporary download of the data the component.

The first webradio diffused was called Radio operator HK and was created in 1995. It used the technology of the multicast which makes it possible to transmit the same information with several recipients. However, the process was summary: CD turning in loop constituted the single programming.

Currently, the techniques evolved and the webradios multiplied, offering varied programming. These stations attract from now on until several tens of thousands of listeners according to the popularity of the site, of the presenters, the regularity of the emissions and the capacity of the waiters. Contrary to the radios diffused by hertzian way which have only one number of frequencies limited, the webradios have access to an abundant resource. In addition, their diffusion does not know a border thanks to the generalization of the telecommunication networks during this last decade.

Article 2 of the law of the modified September 30th, 1986 relating to the freedom of the communication defines a service of radio like “any department of communication in the public by electronic way intended to be received simultaneously by the whole of the public or a category of public and whose main program is composed of an ordered succession of emissions comprising of the sounds”. Today, everyone can create its webradio, on condition that having a connection Internet of the type ADSL and the software requirements.

208 webradios listed by the CSA

The mode which is applicable for them is defined by article 33-1 of the law of September 30th, 1986. It provides that these services are subjected to the mode of the conventionality by the Council or, by way of derogation, with that of the declaration.

Those whose budget is lower than 75,000 € must be declared at the CSA. For the others, the Council concludes a convention for one duration from ten years. He studies the request files of conventionality to the glance as of provisions of the decree of April 27th, 2010 relating to the cinematographic and audio-visual contribution of the editors of television services and to the editors of services of radio operator distributed by the networks not using the frequencies which he assigns. The conventionality is not however necessary if the webradio is made up by the integral and simultaneous resumption of the programming of radio per hertzian way.

At the end of 2015.197 radios were declared at the CSA and 11 were the object of one conventionnement.

Lastly, in France, any creator of webradio must discharge a right near the Company of the authors and composers of music (SACEM) or other companies of having right. 

 

Consult the topic on the radios diffused by other networks that the hertzian way. 

Why certain radios aren't they diffused everywhere in France?

There exists in France, on the one hand, of the public radios and, on the other hand, several categories of private radios, some with local or regional vocation, others with national vocation. The question of their diffusion about the whole of the territory thus arises only for the seconds.
 
The radios are diffused starting from transmitters installed in zones of territory. The Radio France company, public company, have a priority right for obtaining of frequencies on the unit of the zones of the territory. It distributes these frequencies with its liking between its various stations (France Inter, France Info, Mouv', France Musique, France Culture, etc). The private radios, as for them, must, to be present in a zone, to obtain from the CSA an authorization of diffusion.
 
To obtain an authorization of diffusion, the radio must stand as candidate at the time when are launched, by the CSA, of the calls to candidatures. Those are decided when frequencies are vacant or that new frequencies are identified on one or more zones. The radios can then, if they wish to emit in the zone (S) concerned (S), submit a file to the CSA which will examine it according to various criteria, among which:
 - warranty of the pluralist character of the expression of the currents of thought and opinion, the honesty of information and its independence with regard to the economic interests of the shareholders,
 - the experience gained by the candidate in activities of communication,
 - financing and prospects for exploitation of the radio,
 - interest of the project for the public, taking into consideration pluralism of the sociocultural currents of expression,
 - the contribution of the radio to the production of programs carried out locally,
 - the diversity of the operators and need for avoiding the dominant position abuses as well as the practices blocking the free exercise of competition.
 Once the selected radios, it will be necessary for them to sign a convention with the CSA to obtain an authorization of diffusion. 

If a radio is not present on all the French territory, that can thus hold with one or more factors:
 - this radio is a station local or regional and was not conceived to have a national diffusion;
 - this radio, although to national vocation, candidate did not go, for reasons who belong to him, at the time of the last calls to candidatures launched by the CSA in the zones where it is absent;
 - the radio stood as candidate well but was not selected at the time as of last calls for candidate within sight of one or several of the criteria given above.
  
Generally, it should be known that the number of frequencies FM is limited, which does not make it possible to the CSA to fully give satisfaction at the requests of each operator. Moreover, the occasions to deliver new authorizations are rare insofar as the existing frequencies are allotted for one five years renewable duration twice.
In addition, all the zones do not have the same number of frequencies, because of their geographical characteristics in particular: in the border areas, for example, the CSA must take care that no granted frequency can scramble the frequencies used by the close country. In a mountain region, the frequencies of less are carried that in the zones of plain, because of the relief which obstructs the wave propagation.

Which are the rules for the access to the antenna of the political personalities?

The law entrusts to the Superior council of audio-visual the mission of guaranteeing the pluralism of the expression of the currents of thought and opinion in the audio-visual mediums. This pluralism was defined like “intern”, i.e. he wants that balance between the points of view and the opinions is respected by each chain or station (and not “external”, which would be the case if the currents of thought were to be represented each one by at least audio-visual mediums).
 
Apart from the election times, during which is set up a specific device of statement and follow-up of speaking and the antenna times of the political personalities, the Council checks, throughout the year, the application by the audio-visual mediums of the rules which it defined.

In accordance with the law, the speaking times of the political personalities transmitted by the television services and of radio operator to the Council are communicated each month with the presidents of the Senate and the National Assembly and with the persons in charge of the political parties represented at the Parliament. They are also published on this site.
 
The periods of electoral campaign are the object of a very particular vigilance on behalf of the Council. The legislator asks the CSA to address deliberations to the services of audio-visual communication for the duration of the campaigns. The Council goes beyond: it intervenes upstream of the opening of the official campaigns, to specify the conditions of the respect of pluralism which can vary according to the type of poll.  It also adopted, on January 4th, 2011, a deliberation relating to pluralism in election time, whatever the poll. 
  
The modes of enforcement of the principles defined in the deliberations concern the leading responsibility for the diffusers. If the CSA notes manifest imbalances, it can ask the chain, even to put it in residence, to restore balance between the candidates, the lists or the parties political. But the judge of the election is the only one which can truly act on the result of a poll.
 
In addition, the CSA is charged to fix the conditions of programming and production of the emissions of the radiotelevized official campaigns diffused by the public utility (article 16 of the law of the modified September 30th, 1986), when those are envisaged by the electoral code.
 
Article 55 of this same law also entrusts to the CSA the responsibility to lay down the methods according to which a time of intervention is granted, on the antennas of the public utility, with the political formations represented by a group in one or the other of the Assemblies. These emissions, known as “of direct expression”, are also organized for the trade-union organizations and professional representative with the national scale.
 
Let us recall finally that the advertising emissions with political character are prohibited with the radio and on television (article 14 of the law of September 30th, 1986 relating to the freedom of communication).

Consult the topic devoted to political pluralism and the electoral campaigns.
 

Which is the procedure to be followed to obtain temporary a FM frequency?

The CSA can grant authorizations for temporary radios at companies, associations or organizations which make the request of it, at the time of demonstrations or of exceptional events related to the local life: cultural, sporting event or realization of teaching experiments in school. The maximum duration of the authorization is nine months.

The temporary request for authorization must be made near the territorial committee of audio-visual (CTA) in the spring of which the zone of diffusion is. The CTA communicates a file to be supplemented with the operators who make of it the request by telephone or mail.

Obtaining the authorization is related to the conclusion of a convention between the CTA and the operator. The authorization is published in the Official journal.

At the end of the period of diffusion, the operator must present to the CTA a report on the activity of his radio.

All the requests for temporary authorization are not inevitably satisfied, for various reasons among which the absence of frequency in the zone requested, the fact that the request emanates from an operator candidate within the framework of a call to the candidatures in progress on the zone, that it does not correspond to a temporary project for an extraordinary event but raises of a call to the candidatures or that it can cause to puncture the advertising market at a given time (commercial event, tourist period…), at the expense of already authorized radios.
  

Consult the topic on the temporary radios.

Why large radios like Europe 1 and RTL aren't diffused in FM everywhere in France?

Since the opening of the FM band to the private radios there is more than thirty years, the attribution of the frequencies to the operators was carried out zone by zone, as calls for candidate launched by the successive regulatory authorities. In this respect, it is advisable to recall that only present at the origin on the long waves with the national radio, the great historical stations such as RTL, RMC and Europe 1 did not express an immediate interest for the diffusion of their program in frequency modulation and obtained their first authorizations in 1986, this delay which could not have been caught up with thereafter.
 
In addition, the CSA was brought, just like the CNCL which had preceded it, to select the operators according to the number of frequencies available and while respecting, like invites there the law, a necessary balance between the various categories of stations (radios associative or commercial, local, regional, national, sets of themes or general practitioners, etc). It thus obviously, because of the very a large number of requests, could not allot a frequency to each radio candidate in a given zone.
 
Before launching the last appeals for candidatures, the CSA sought the best way of optimizing the resource available to allow the diffusion of the greatest possible number of stations per zone. However, even if a considerable profit of frequencies could be obtained, no station, so important is it, could not claim to be present on the totality of the territory.

How is the control of publicity exerted?

The CSA has the role of controlling the object, the contents and the methods of programming of the advertisements. This control is carried out a posteriori since 1993. In the event of diffusion of a message nonin conformity with the laws and payments in force, the CSA can intervene with the diffusers to ask for the dead halt of the countryside or to prohibit all new diffusion.
 
To avoid the difficulties which a campaign considered to be nonin conformity with the regulation would raise, the advertisers and the advertising agencies subject their message, before his diffusion, with the professional Regulatory authority of publicity (ARPP, e.g. Office of checking of publicity), an interprofessional association of self-discipline, which gives an opinion on the compatibility of this project with the texts. This opinion does not bind the diffusers which can pass in addition to but it can make it possible to the interested parties to avoid infringing the legislative measures, lawful or ethical. He, in practice, is almost systematically claimed by the advertising agencies of the television services.
 
Televised publicity and sponsorship are governed by the decree n°92-280 of March 27th, 1992.
 
Publicity is defined like “any form of diffused televised message subject to remuneration or another counterpart in sight is to promote the supply of goods or services, including those which are presented under their generic name, within the framework of a marketing activity, industrial, artisanal or of liberal profession, that is to say to ensure the sales promotion of a public enterprise or private. This definition does not include the direct offers with the public for the sale, of the purchase or the lease of products or for the supply of services subject to remuneration“.
 
Sponsorship is “very contribution of a company or a public or deprived legal person or a natural person, not carrying on activities of edition of television services or audio-visual mediums with the request or of production of audio-visual works, with the financing of television services or programs with an aim of promoting its name, its brand, its image or its activities”.
 
The most frequent interventions of the CSA relate to cases of clandestine publicity and failures to the rules of sponsorship.
 
Clandestine publicity is prohibited. It is “the verbal or visual presentation of goods, services, the name, the brand or the activities of a producer of goods or a service provider in programs, when this presentation is made with an advertising aim”.
 
 According to the importance of the noted failure and its repetition, the Council can:
 - to write with the diffuser to draw its attention to a failure noted on its antenna,
 - to put in residence to respect the regulation,
 - in the most serious cases, to initiate a procedure of sanction which can in particular lead to the delivery of a pecuniary penalty.

With which conditions a radio can it change category?

Article 42-3 of the law of the modified September 30th, 1986, in its version resulting from the law n° 2004-669 of July 9th, 2004 relating to the electronic communications and the services of audio-visual communication, lays down the possibility for the CSA of authorizing changes of holder of authorization for the diffusion of services of radio operator accompanied, if necessary, of a change of category, without resorting to the procedure of appeal to candidatures. The legislator decided to frame this possibility in order not to destabilize the radiophonic landscape. Thus, the changes of holder and category who are derogatory with the call for candidate must remain exceptional.
 
In particular, the Council can give an approval only after having checked that the operation considered is compatible with “the safeguarding of in particular local advertising market market equilibrium” and to be itself assured the respect of the criteria of article 29 of the law of September 30th, 1986 (saves pluralism of the currents of expression sociocultural, diversification of the operators, need for avoiding the dominant position abuses as well as the practices blocking the free exercise of competition, etc). In addition, the changes of holder and category except call for candidate are not opened with the associative services achieving a mission of social communication of proximity, nor with the local, regional services and sets of themes independent.
 
For the instruction of the changes of category, the Council esteem necessary to have an overall vision of the projects which the interested operators would be likely to address to him and which it will examine after having collected the opinion of the territorial committees of the audio-visual one.
  

Consult the topic devoted to the possibilities of modification of the radios in the course of authorization. 

Why the large radios have don't the same frequency in their various zones of diffusion?

The attribution of the frequencies FM to the operators was carried out zone by zone with the passing of years, within the framework of the successive appeals for candidatures launched by the CSA. Each zone has a particular number of frequencies, which varies according to its geographical characteristics and in particular relief, but also of the frequencies already used in the close zones. Thus, all the spectrum of the FM band is not possible to use in the whole of the zones.

Moreover, it is particularly difficult to use a single frequency for a radio on the whole of the territory, because the resumption of the same frequency on transmitters installed with too brought closer intervals generates important phenomena of jamming which do not make it possible to ensure a sufficient comfort of listening. To retain the principle of a single frequency would result thus in to decrease the number of transmitters possible to install and, consequently, the cover of the territory.

Today, some stations with national vocation lay out however, in a certain number of regions sufficiently distant from/to each other, of an identical frequency. Nevertheless, it is impossible to allot this one everywhere and in particular in many border zones because it is not rare that the aforementioned frequency is already in service in the adjoining countries.

Only one case of figure derogates from this essential rule of the planning of the frequencies: radios of motorways which lay out on the unit of the territory of frequency 107.7 MHz, but with synchronized transmitters (technology expensive and difficult to implement on very large surfaces) which, although neighbors from/to each other, but with a cover limited to a band along the layout of the motorways, do not scramble themselves between them.

Which are the rules which apply for the general interest campaigns?

These campaigns are organized, on the media of public service, by a circular of the Prime Minister of which the last version dated September 20th, 2010 (Olympic Games of September 22nd, 2010).

Their diffusion within the advertising screens is mentioned in article 14 of the decree of March 27th, 1992 relating to publicity, sponsorship and armchair shopping. Their time of antenna is not taken into account by the CSA in his control of the maximum duration of the advertising screens diffused by the chains.

When will the next call for candidate for the authorization of FM radios take place in my area?

It is the territorial committee of audio-visual (CTA) of which you depend who can give you information. Do not hesitate to contact it.

Consult the list of the territorial committees of the audio-visual one. 

With which conditions a radio can it diffuse messages of local publicity?

The decree n° 94-972 of November 9th, 1994 introduced the possibility of diffusing messages of local publicity for the radios diffusing a programme of one three hours minimum duration local interest per day, between 6:00 and 22:00, on a zone lower than six million inhabitants. This possibility was opened with the radios which have the role to fall under the local landscape by proposing a program of local interest.

The CSA specified, according to the characteristics of the program diffused by the services of sound broadcasting, the type of operator whom can have access to local publicity.

In are excluded the radios from category D, services sets of themes with national vocation, whose vocation is the diffusion of a program set of themes on the national territory without local unhookings, and the radios of category E, radios general practitioners with national vocation, whose objective is the diffusion on the national territory of emissions making a big part with information, offering a great diversity of programs and having the possibility, within one hour the daily limit, to carry out the unhookings intended for the diffusion of information.

Thus access to local publicity has:

  • radios of category A, eligible associative services at the Bottoms of support for the radiophonic expression, whose commercial resources coming from the messages of publicity or sponsorship diffused with the antenna are lower than 20% of their turnover. These radios have the role to be radios of proximity, Community, cultural or school radios. They must devote to the programs of local interest at least four hours daily between 6 a.m. and 22 hours;
  • radios of category B, local or regional services independent not diffusing an identified national plan and whose zone of service road covers a population lower than six million inhabitants. These independent services not diffusing an identified national plan are characterized by the presence, in their emissions, of a programme of local interest of one daily duration, publicity not lain, of at least four hours between 6 a.m. and 22 hours.
  • radios of category C, local or regional services diffusing the program of a network set of themes to national vocation whose zone of service road does not cover a population of more than six million inhabitants. These services are not characterized the daily diffusion of a program of local interest and, in complement, of an identified program provided by a network set of themes to national vocation. The daily duration of the program of local interest cannot be lower than three hours, except publicity, between 6 a.m. and 22 hours.

The convention signed by the operator with the CSA fixes the characteristics of the program of local interest, its nature and its duration.

The program of local interest must be carried out locally by people or local services directly remunerated by the holder of the authorization. It must comprise local data transmission, emissions of local services or devoted to the expression or the local life, fictions radiophonic and musical programs whose composition or animation is local, like all the programs produced and diffused locally by the owner with an educational and cultural aim.

Are also regarded as local program the emissions diffused within the framework of an agreement of programming concluded with one or more radios belonging to the same category and serving a zone located in the geographical spring of the same radiophonic technical committee or in the spring of a contiguous committee and the emissions making. part of the local program of this or these radios.

The maximum duration of diffusion of the messages of local publicity is limited to 25% of the duration of diffusion of the program of local interest, except publicity, by 24 hours period. The time devoted to local publicity thus varies according to the duration of local unhooking.

 

Consult the topic on the FM radios.

Which is the procedure to be followed to diffuse radios in a public place, a trade for example?

The CSA does not have competence in this field. It would be necessary to address to you to the SACEM (Company of the authors, composers and editors of music).

How long does a radio have to preserve its emissions after their diffusion?

The holder of a autrorisation of radio diffusion is held to preserve for one month a recording of the emissions which it diffuses, as well as the corresponding driver.

On request of the Council or territorial committee of audio-visual, it must provide in the eight days copies elements requested.

The recording must be carried out on VHS video cassettes, by using the soundtrack, at a tape speed of 2.37 cm/s, or on tapes of a quarter of inch, at a tape speed of 4.75 or 9.5 cm/s, or on support CD-ROM (format Real Audio).

Which are the frequencies of the principal radios in long waves?

Here:
 - France Inter - 162 Khz
 - Europe 1 - 183 Khz
 - RTL - 234 Khz
 - RMC - 216 Khz.