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Other questions about the reception of television

How is it made that the diffusion of the satellite channels is encrypted, and thus requires the use of specific equipment?

The encoding of the chains or certain programs diffused by satellite is in general dependent on points of laws (in particular for the sports events or cinematographic works). The chains buy the rights of diffusion of these programs for given territories (for example: a sporting retransmission only for France) and so to have assurance which the signal is received only on the territory for which rights exist, the signal is scrambled and requires indeed equipment.

This situation prevailed already in the past but can meet indeed more often with diffusion HD, because the contracts of acquisition of rights of diffusion are increasingly strict to ensure a better exploitation of these rights and to fight against the hacking.

How is it made that the chain France 24, that I receive by a box, frequently changes channel without the televiewers being informed? It should be diffused on the channel 24.

The distributor of your chains is subjected to obligations concerning the resumption and the site of certain chains only. As follows:

- it must propose the national chains of France Televisions, Arte, TV5 World and the two parliamentary chains, but it does not have obligation of resumption of France 24;

- it must respect the logical classification allotted by SCUMS to the chains of the DVB free main road (from 1 to 27), or at the very least its scheduling (e.g. : from 101 to 127, or 201 to 227, etc); however, France 24 is not a chain of the DVB.

In addition, the distributors can modify their plans of services subject observing certain conditions: the classification of the chains must be equitable, transparent, homogeneous and nondiscriminatory (and for this reason, France 24 must appear within a coherent block of chains); the editor of the chain must be informed about it within a period of one month minimum before the change. On the other hand, there does not exist legal obligation as regards the information with the televiewers which, in the facts, is often done by the means as of newsletters to the subscribers and/or the first pages and other space promotional on the box.

Why the quality of the image of the chain franceinfo: is it poor?

The quality of image of Franceinfo: is the consequence of technical impossibility to diffuse the chain in high definition. Indeed, the available resource on the R1 multiplexing was completely used with 5 chains in HD.

To make pass Franceinfo: , one had to reduce the quality of France O which passed from high definition (HD) to standard definition (SD). More precisely, a chain HD consumes 195 thousandth resource, while a chain SD consumes 95 thousandth.

These arbitrations on the quality of image of the chains France Ô and Franceinfo: were made at the request of the Government.

How is the diffusion of the DVB organized?

Starting from 1986, company TDF gradually lost the monopoly of which she enjoyed for the diffusion the television services. Today, the diffusion of the DVB fits in a market where several operators are present. For any knowledge on the conditions of this diffusion and to understand the role of each speaker on this market, consult the document below:

How is it made that I receive certain chains of the DVB and not the others?

During their launching in March 2005, the chains of the DVB were initially distributed on six multiplexings which occupies each one a different channel in the zones where the DVB is diffused. Since December 12th, 2012, with the progressive deployment on the territory of six new chains in high definition, two additional multiplexings were commissioned. 

SCUMS made so that the treatment granted to the multiplexings of the DVB in terms of cover is most levelling possible. However, it is possible that in certain zones, the reception of all the chains is not equivalent quality. While returning to you on the page “My cover DVB” you can know the chains which are normally received at a given address.

A antennist of your area is the most capable person to know the reality of the acceptance requirements of the DVB according to your exact place of dwelling. Also it is essential to call upon him to know if the level of signal received in your zone is sufficient for the whole of the multiplexings and if it is possibly necessary to change or adapt your antenna to obtain a fully satisfactory reception.

Can I receive the DVB with a collective external antenna?

If you are in a covered zone by the DVB, you can theoretically receive the DVB with a collective external antenna.

It is necessary to ask for the diagnosis of a antennist. This last will be can be obliged to intervene on the community aerial. This intervention should be inexpensive.
However, the managing agents in condominium or the companies managers of buildings HLM do not have particular legal requirement as regards reception of the DVB.
The installation of a new antenna rake or the adaptation of old in order to collecting the chains of the DVB obeys the following rules:
- if the building has a maintenance contract of the community aerial, the intervention could be realized at the request of the syndic or the manager. The cost will be reflected by it in the loads of condominium or the rental loads (HLM, ILM);
- if the building does not have a maintenance contract, this intervention will have imperatively to be voted as a general meeting like any expenditure relating to the condominium and supported by the joint owners by distribution of the costs. It goes from there from the only will of the manager of building HLM for an operation of comparable nature, which will be also supported by the tenants by distribution of the costs.

Can I receive the DVB with an interior antenna?

An interior antenna can, in certain cases, to be enough to receive the DVB.

However, it is impossible to guarantee a perfect quality of reception with this kind of antenna, because the planning of the frequencies and the power of the transmitters were not conceived for this kind of reception.

Indeed, the frequencies are planned according to the rules in force with the international level, i.e. with an external antenna, to 10 m height compared to the ground. The signal which your interior antenna receives is inevitably attenuated by the walls or the roof and all the electrical circuits and materials which they contain.

I hitherto received correctly all the chains but for a few days one of them has disappeared.

Check near your neighbors if they are in the same case as you. Perhaps in the affirmative, that comes owing to the fact that your transmitter is broken down, or temporarily stopped for a maintenance. You inform near the chain, by calling its national number.

If you are only in this case, your domestic facility is perhaps damaged. It is very frequent that this phenomenon occurs when an amplifier breaks down, in the collective installations. The amplifiers are devices which the fitters can establish to improve the force of your signal to the catch of antenna. Their lifetime is long, but not infinite: when they cease functioning, the breakdown appears unexplainable if the system of reception is not maintained regularly. Consult in this case a fitter or your syndic, who will alert the fitter of the building.

If neither the chain, nor the fitter can solve the problem. In this case, then fill the form which will enable you to start the investigation of protection of the reception (the thorough investigation conducted jointly by the ANFR and the CSA).

Why my area isn't covered whereas I pay the royalty?

The contribution to the audio-visual public (new name of the royalty) does not finance the DVB. It serves to cover part of the budget as the public sector of audio-visual (France Televisions, Radio France, international Arte, Radio France and the National institute of audio-visual), whether the diffusion of television or radio is analogical or digital.
The resources of the free private channels of the DVB (TF1, Canal+, M6, Direct 8, W9, NRJ 12, NT1, TMC, Europe 2 TV, I-TV, BFM-TV, Gulli and local chains) are of commercial origin: they come from publicity, sponsorship, armchair shopping, derived rights (edition literary, video, disc, etc).
The financing of the public channels of the DVB (France 2, France 3, France 4, France 5, France O and Arte) rests, as for him, on an analog and digital system composed of commercial receipts and public resources, whose principal one is the product of this contribution.
The contribution to the audio-visual public is a tax whose amount is entered in the finance law. Any holder of a tv station, that he is owner or tenant of his housing, is held to pay it.

I filled the form with request for investigation on my difficulties of reception with the assistance of my fitter. What will it occur?

You will be recalled by an investigator of the National agency of the frequencies (ANFR) which will put some complementary questions by telephone to you to try to characterize the problem. Then, it will be able to send a vehicle especially equipped which will make mesures to examine the state of the signal of television near your residence.
 If your disturbances are permanent, these measurements will often make it possible to identify an external cause: new building built in the vicinity, wind mill, unauthorized transmitter. The public authorities will then initiate a procedure near the person in charge of the disturbance so that it makes it cease, for example by installing a relay transmitter with its expenses or by equipping you with equipment of reception by satellite.
 It can also happen that measurements do not make it possible to conclude. It is in particular the case if the disorder is caused by intermittent jammings. To prevent that the investigation fails, the moments should be specified when jamming occurs, to allow the agents sworn in to note it.

Did I receive with a portable antenna of interior, I do not receive more or in a degraded way, why can't I profit from an investigation?

The frequencies are planned according to the rules in force with the international level, i.e. with an external antenna, to 10 m height compared to the ground. The signal which your interior antenna receives is inevitably attenuated by the walls or the roof and all the electrical circuits and materials which they contain.

If you use an interior antenna, you do not put all the chances of good reception on your side. The State cannot thus start an expensive investigation to improve this reception. That is naturally also worth for the use of an antenna in the roofs.

If the disorders persist with the use of an antenna external located at more than 10 m height, if the reception were satisfactory before the beginning of the disorders and if your installation were checked by a professional, the request for control is then justified (the thorough investigation conducted jointly by the ANFR and the CSA). 

If I am not equipped with a decoder or a television set MPEG-4, will I be able to receive the 6 new chains in high definition?

TF1, France 2, Channel + (encrypted programs), Arte and M6, which currently diffuse in high definition (standard MPEG-4), continue to also diffuse their program in standard definition (standard MPEG-2). This double diffusion has to last sufficiently so that the televiewers do not need to change their receiver brutally.  You can thus receive all the numeric channels with your receiver, but only in normal definition.

On the other hand, six new chains (HD1, the 21,6Ter Team, Number 23, Discovered RMC, Cherished 25) can be received only if you have of a decoder or a television set compatible with standard MPEG-4.

Does my adapter for the free channels enable me to receive the paying chains?

Not, the adapter must be equipped with a site to insert the season ticket into the paying chains. The companies which distribute the paying chains of the DVB, for the moment Canal+ and Réglo TV, provide the equipment necessary to receive the chains.

Why all the chains of the DVB aren't diffused by the same transmitter located beside at home?

1626 transmitters diffuse the chains of the DVB. Their characteristics of diffusion were defined by the CSA to allow a large number of benefitting more from digital under good conditions.

To diffuse free and paying national chains of the DVB, 8 multiplexings, respectively called R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7 and R8 are used. The multiplexings R5, R7 and R8 are gradually installed on the whole of the transmitters (deployment of the DVB in high definition).

A multiplexing is the signal which results from the assembly of several chains on the same channel of diffusion. The exploitation of each multiplexing is entrusted, by the chains which compose it, with an operator of multiplexing. This one launches an invitation to tender for the various technical diffusers for the installation of the transmitters. To answer these calls, the diffusers make an offer in which are given the site and the equipment best adapted to the criteria of cover establish by the Council.

In a given zone, if the same diffuser is not chosen by the whole of the operators of multiplexing, it is possible that the diffusion of the DVB is ensured by two pylons of transmitter which should not however not be too distant one from the other in order to prevent that the televiewers are constrained to provide themselves with an antenna with double rake.

The CSA does not have the power to impose on the chains which they are on the same transmitter. The CSA controls the characteristics of the transmitters provided by the operators. It approved the sites suggested after having checked that they guaranteed a cover equivalent to that of analogical television.

The cover of several common Frenchwomen calls today on two pylons which ensure each one the diffusion of certain multiplexings.  

For more can information on the subject you consult above the answer to the question “ How is organized the diffusion of the DVB? »

Can I buy an adapter which enables me to reach the DVB and on television by ADSL?

Yes, certain industrialists propose devices which cumulate the reception of the bouquets by ADSL and that of the free channels of the DVB.

My television is disturbed by a park of wind mills. What can I make?

You must download the card of request for investigation suggested on the following page of the site of the Council , you make it fill by a professional of the reception and send it to you at the National agency of frequencies (ANFR) at the address indicated on the card.

The ANFR should expedite an investigation. If it is indeed about a jamming due to the cause which you indicate, the agency will require of the fitter of the wind mills to do the work which are essential or to get the hardware requirement to you to guarantee a good reception of television.

My building does not lay out any more a community aerial. Am I obliged to subscribe me with the cable to continue to receive the hertzian chains?

The law of July 9th, 2004 introduced into the law of September 30th, 1986 a legislative warranty aiming at allowing the maintenance of the reception of the hertzian chains the hearths which do not have any more access to an antenna rake.

Article 34-1 of the law establishes the right so that it is agreed to call the service antenna for the hearths which reside in an apartment building whose internal network of distribution is connected either to a classical antenna allowing the reception of the programs diffused by terrestrial hertzian way, but at a distribution network by coaxial cable. This article thus makes it possible to these televiewers to continue to receive the hertzian chains diffused in analogical mode, which they are national or local, public or private. The chains thus concerned are the following ones: TF1, France 2, France 3, Canal+, France 5/Arte, M6, as well as the chains local profiting from an authorization and received in the zone. The distribution must also understand France 4 as well as the free channels of the DVB.

Moreover, article 45-3 of the same law makes obligation with the distributors to put free at the disposal of all their users the programs of the Parliamentary chain.
The distribution of these chains cannot thus be conditioned with a subscription with a commercial offer. In particular, article 34-1 provides that, for the service antenna, the only expenses which must be taken into account are those related to the installation, the maintenance or the replacement of the internal network of distribution of the building.

Consult the page on the reception of the DVB in collective habitat

I would like to receive foreign chains. How to make?

If you receive already television by the cable or the satellite, you can question your operator on this subject.

As regards the diffusion by satellite of the chains, the Lyngsat site will precisely inform you on the diffused programs.

As regards the reception by the antenna “rake”, it is sometimes possible in the border regions to receive all or left the foreign programs (German, Swiss, Luxembourg, Italian…). These programs are diffused since transmitters located apart from the French territory on which the CSA does not have any power. The reception of these programs in France comes only from the permeability of the borders to the electromagnetic waves. They cannot thus claim with a warranty of continuity of service. The reception of these programs can require the installation, by a professional, of one second external antenna which can generate disturbance on the reception of the French programs.

Can I receive the DVB in my motor home?

The mobile reception, i.e. on a television set moving as that can be the case in a particular vehicle, is not for the moment envisaged in France.

However, you can receive, in certain case, the DVB in your vehicle parking with a simple antenna rake and an adapter.

However, it is impossible to guarantee a perfect quality of reception with this kind of antenna, because the planning of the frequencies and the power of the transmitters were not conceived for this kind of reception.

Indeed, the frequencies are planned according to the rules in force with the international level, i.e. with an external antenna, to 10 m height compared to the ground. The signal which your antenna with a lower height receives is thus weaker and can not be sufficient to guarantee a correct reception of the DVB.

What the right to the antenna and under which conditions is he exerted?

Any person residing on the French territory has a right to the antenna, recognized as well by the French jurisdictions as by the European Court of the human rights. Neither a municipality nor the regulation of an allotment can prohibit any installation of individual antenna of reception of the television programs. The applicable regulation as regards right to the antenna (Law n° 66-457 of July 2nd, 1966 relating to the installation of reception antennas of broadcasting and its decree on enforcement of a law n° 67-1171 of December 22nd, 1967) envisages the following procedure.
A person, owner or tenant, eager to install an individual reception antenna on her place of residence must:
 - to inform the property owners' syndicate or the syndic of condominium, by registered letter with AR, of its intention to proceed to the installation of such an antenna. This mail must be joined an installation drawing of the antenna, a certificate of conformity to the standards technical and security, provided by a antennist, and the nature services of radio and/or television whose reception is wished via the aforementioned antenna. These parts are provided by the fitters of antennas;
- as from the date of reception of the mail considered, the syndic has a three months deadline for is to be opposed for a reason serious and legitimate with the installation of the antenna by seizing the court of jurisdiction which will appreciate its request, that is to say to propose connection with a community aerial or a cable network (cf below). The law recognizes like serious reason and legitimates likely to be opposite to the applicant the fact that the services whose reception is wished via the antenna are already distributed by cable; jurisprudence recognized like the such public breach of security or the attack with the esthetics of a building;
- so within this three month, the syndic did not appear, the applicant can proceed without another formality to the installation of the individual reception antenna.

As regards connection of a residence to the urban cable network
 In theory, the cable network serving the residences of a condominium is a good of collective use involving the payment of loads of condominium by each joint owner with height amongst percentages which returns to him. In this respect, a joint owner cannot refuse to pay the share which falls on to him with regard to the maintenance of this network, even if it does not subscribe with the made service offering. Same manner, a person living the ground floor of a building must regulate the maintenance costs of the vacuum-refuse when well even it does not use it. On the other hand, the syndic can in no manner of imposing the subscription of a subscription on a service offering of television. The Final court of appeal thus sanctioned a syndic who had imposed a subscription to the joint owners of the residence that it managed.

Which is the standard of diffusion of DVB HD?

The standard selected to diffuse the programs in high definition is standard MPEG-4 H.264 leaves 10.

A close radio ham scrambles my reception of the chains. What can I make?

The management of the radio hams and the regulation which is applicable for them concern the National agency of the frequencies.

I live close to a gendarmerie, of a police station, a fire protection organization or help and I for some time note a jamming of the reception of several chains. What to make?

It is initially necessary to make examine your installation of amplification by a professional of the reception.

Perhaps it was equipped with amplifiers intended to improve your reception of the television of which some are not very selective in frequency. However the State is deploying for its security services a new communication network, using hertzian resources close to the channels used for television. This last network satisfied the standards with use of the spectrum, but is likely to disturb amplifiers not selective enough. If such is the case, it is thus your installation which is in question.

If the disorders persist however after the intervention of a professional, you can request an investigation of protection of the reception (the thorough investigation conducted jointly by the ANFR and the CSA).  

Which is the procedure to be followed to diffuse chains in a public place, a trade for example?

There does not exist, in the state of information available to the CSA, from organization which manages in a total way the authorization to diffuse services of television. It is thus advisable to bring you closer to each chain which the trade wishes to diffuse to obtain its authorization, with signing of a bearing contract on the resumption of its programs on a purely professional basis. However, the SACD (dramatic Company of the authors and the composers), which manages the rights of the audiovisual programmes, is likely to bring further information on this point.

For memory, it is also necessary to obtain the authorization of the SACEM since music is likely to be diffused.

You can, on this subject, to also consult our directory of the operators.

My operator (cable, satellite, ADSL, etc) modified in a unilateral way the conditions of my subscription TV (rate, offer, etc). Which recourse can I have?

The CSA does not have competence to intervene on the conflicts which oppose the distributors of paying chains and their subscribers.

We advise you, initially, to study well the contract which you subscribed to be sure that such a modification on behalf of your operator was not envisaged.

If you do not find nothing like it, you can then turn you towards a consumers' association or contact the direction of competition, consumption and repression of the frauds of your department.

On which date will be diffused new chains DVB in overseas?

Since November 2010, the DVB is available in all the territories ultramarins, thanks to a multiplexing (ROM1) composed of eight public channels (Country 1st, France 2, France 3, France 4, France 5, France O, France 24, Arte), to which is added a maximum of two private local chains specific to each territory.

As of the launching of the DVB overseas, the Council had planned the frequencies for the later commissioning of a second multiplexing (ROM2). However, to date, the resource thus available could not be allotted, for lack of will on behalf of private national chains of the DVB to be diffused overseas.

Don't I receive the public channels whereas I pay the royalty, it is a scandal?

The law does not envisage the obligation for the TV channels, including public service, to be accessible on 100% from the territory with an antenna rake. The law specifies 95% per hertzian way. In the zones not - glazes, it is necessary to pass by another means: the law envisages for example the obligation for the chains to make a free offer by satellite. There is one: FRANSAT. The royalty is in particular used to finance the programs of the public channels: it thus remains useful even if you receive these chains by another means that the antenna rake.