Translation with SYSTRAN Links


How are the ranges of channels distributed by cable, ADSL, fibre, etc made up?

As regards constitution of the plans of services of the distributors, the law distinguishes three different situations according to the TV channels:

  • an obligation of supply of public channels (France Televisions, LCP…) who must be present in all the offers;
  • an obligation of resumption of the private channels of the DVB when these last make request of it (TF1, M6, W9, Gulli, NRJ 12, BFM TV…). It is it should be noted that one of these chains could perfectly refuse to give its signal to a distributor, in the case, for example, of a dissension with the distributor on the restart conditions;
  • a resumption of the other chains within the framework of a trade agreement. They are all the chains which are not on the DVB and which can, in this case, to envisage an exclusive distribution with only one distributor. The only possible restriction on an agreement of exclusive distribution results from a competing analysis which results in imposing the provision of these chains to the competitors. Such a decision does not raise, however, of the competence of the CSA but of the Authority of competition and is related to the dominant position of the distributor. 

I seek to join a chain or an operator. Where to find its contact?

You can consult the Directory of the operators put online on this site.

Which is the procedure to be followed to obtain an authorization for a chain which will diffuse on the DVB?

The authorization of a national or local chain on the DVB is done within the framework of a call to candidatures launched by the CSA. 
Consult the topic devoted to the procedure of authorization of the chains of the DVB. 

Which is the procedure to be followed to obtain an authorization for a chain which will diffuse on one or more network (X) nonhertzian (S) (cable, satellite, Internet, ADSL, etc)?

The chains of television which wish to be diffused or distributed by a network not using the frequencies assigned by CSA (cable, satellite, ADSL, Internet, telephony, etc) must sign a convention with the CSA or be the object of a declaration at the CSA. 
The TV channels whose annual budget is lower than 150,000 € are exempted of convention and are subjected to the simple declaratory mode.
The chains devoted to information on the local life are, for their part, the object of a particular procedure of conventionality.
 The conventionality is not necessary if the service consists of the integral and simultaneous recovery:
 • of a public channel,
 • of a profit chain of a hertzian authorization, except if the recovery causes to make pass the population of the zone served by a television service local to more than 10 million inhabitants.

Consult the topic devoted to the legal mode applicable to the TV channels, apart from the DVB.  

How were the national chains of the DVB selected?

The law of the modified September 30th, 1986 defined the selection or restart conditions of the chains of the DVB: the public channels profit from a right of access priority to be present on the DVB; for the private channels, a distinction is to be operated:

  • those which had an authorization for a terrestrial hertzian diffusion delivered before August 1st, 2000 (TF1, M6, Canal+) profit from the integral resumption of their program in DVB as well as additional authorization for the diffusion of another chain, said chain “no-claims bonus”;
  • those which did not have an authorization for a terrestrial hertzian diffusion before August 1st, 2000 had to answer a call for candidate. SCUMS launched, between 2001 and 2011, several calls for candidate for the private channels of the DVB.

The selection of the CSA sought to ensure a balance between the free chains and the paying chains and also made it possible to new editors to reach the terrestrial hertzian diffusion.

Consult the topic devoted to the chains of the DVB.

Why certain chains aren't they diffused on DVB?

Although digital technology makes it possible to increase the number of chains diffused on the terrestrial network, the radioelectric resource remains limited. It does not make it possible to take again all the chains present on the cable and the satellite, or Internet.
The public channels, under the terms of the law, are all present on the DVB: France 2, France 3, France 5, Arte. France Televisions also obtained the possibility of diffusing a new chain in DVB: France 4. France O was then added to the national chains of the DVB. And the Parliamentary chain also profits from a right of repossession in DVB.
The private channels TF1, Canal+ and M6 also profited from a right of repossession on the DVB and their companies editors could profit from a “channel no-claims bonus” so that the chain of their choice is also present on the DVB.
The other private chains had to answer the appeals for candidatures launched by the CSA.
 The selection of the CSA was carried out starting from several criteria registered in the law:

  • capacity to answer waitings of a large audience;
  • need for ensuring a true competition and the diversity of the operators;
  • safeguard of the pluralism of the sociocultural currents of expression;
  • the experience gained by the candidates;
  • commitments production diffusion of audio-visual and cinematographic works;
  • commitments relating to the cover of the territory;
  • the coherence of the proposals regrouping choice of distributor of services.

There are thus two possible reasons so that a chain is not diffused in DVB:

  • that is to say the chain did not answer the call for candidate launched by SCUMS because she did not wish to be present on the DVB;
  • that is to say the chain was not selected by the CSA following the instruction of the candidates' files, within sight of the criteria mentioned above.

The calls for candidate concerning television are subject to the same legal rules resulting from the law of the modified September 30th, 1986 as the calls relating to the radio: it is only at the time of the procedure closure of appeal, when all the conventions were signed, the delivered authorizations and the other requests formally rejected by the CSA, that the letters notifying the motivations of rejection can be then addressed by the Council individually to each company whose candidature was not retained.

How to subscribe me with the paying chains?

It is necessary for that to contact the companies which distribute the pay channels of the DVB, for the moment Canal+ and Réglo TV.

Several paying chains are diffused free at certain times of the day. Which?

There are for the moment three paying chains which have “beaches in light”, i.e. accessible without subscription. It is about:
 - Canal+ (beaches in light authorized the morning, at the mid--day or in before-evening);
 - Paris Première (beaches in light authorized between 6 p.m. and 21 hours);
 - Canal+ Sport (beaches in light authorized the morning, at the mid--day or in before-evening).
Consult the topic on the paying chains of the DVB. 

Where are the local channels in France?

The Council has conducted, for several years, an action determined in favour of the development of the sector of local televisions. The arrival of digital terrestrial television allowed this increase. From 2006 to 2013, the number of the local televisions diffused on the terrestrial terrestrial network thus passed from 12 to 48. Their programming is of quality, in particular thanks to the exchange of programs and with the pooling their means of production.

However, the economic model of the sector remains to be found, certain chains meeting of the economic difficulties. This is why, in 2010, the Council and the Head office of the media and culture industries (DGMIC) ordered a study on the conditions of success of local television in France.

Within sight of the recommendations of this study, the Council decided in 2012 to clarify and soften the criteria determining the concept of local and regional programming: it was a question of promoting information concerning the coverage area of the chain, but also of giving him the possibility of giving an account of the news of a broader regional perimeter.

In addition, in the economic domain, the working group “Televisions local”, chaired by Nicolas About, wishes to reinforce the prospects for exploitation of these services, in particular by clarifying the methods of intervention of the local government agencies in their financing. 

The deliberation of the Council of January 15th, 2013, which fixes the terms of dissemination of briefs extracted from sporting events and events of a great interest for the public, is favorable to local televisions: it authorizes, on any chain, the 90 second diffusion per hour of antenna of extracts of competitions.

Lastly, the Council is on the point of proposing with the Government and the Parliament legislative modifications which will make it possible to improve referencing of local televisions on the nonhertzian electronic communication networks (cable, satellite, ADSL, etc).

How to record the programs of the DVB with a video tape recorder?

Many are the televiewers to be written with SCUMS to obtain information on the connection of their television set, with adapter integrated or not, with their video tape recorder, for the recording of chains of the DVB received by an antenna rake. The answer to this question requires the taking into account of several cases of figure.

A video tape recorder contains, just like an analogical television set, an analogical tuner. With the passage to the digital whole, the video tape recorder must from now on be connected to an adapter DVB to be able to record a program. Indeed, the analogical tuner of the recorder does not make it possible to receive or record the DVB. It is thus necessary to connect, on the catch péritel video tape recorder, an adapter DVB which will be given the responsibility “to adapt” the audio signals and video DVB to the analogical format.

To add an adapter DVB requires however to modify the connection of the video tape recorder to the antenna, on the one hand, and with the television set, on the other hand. This modification is different according to whether the television set or not integrates already an adapter DVB.

Thus, to look at and record simultaneously different programs DVB with an analogical video tape recorder and an analogical television set, one needs either two adapters DVB simple tuner, or an adapter DVB doubles tuner. In the case of a television set DVB, the adapter is already integrated. Lastly, it is possible, starting from one only adapter, in certain cases integrated into the television set, to record the program which one looks at (and only this one).

According to the various situations, connection with the reception antenna must be carried out in the following way: catch double antenna then adapter or simple tuner (in its catch ANT IN, or Antenna) then, if necessary, second adapter (of OUT catch ANT of the first to catch ANT IN second), then the television set if it is compatible DVB.

It is not possible to look at another chain of the DVB, while recording a program, that in the condition of having an adapter tuner connected at the same time to the video tape recorder and the television set doubles, or if one has a second adapter simple tuner. The remote control of the adapter connected to the video tape recorder controlling the recording of the emission, it is strongly recommended not to change chain lasting the recording.

On certain television sets with DVB integrated, it is sometimes possible to transmit the chain in the course of watching towards a video tape recorder using catches péritel (it is with this intention necessary to refer to the instruction manuals of the devices). In these conditions, which is seen on the television set, whose screen can sometimes be put in day before, is what is recorded.

Can the diagrams of connection of a video tape recorder to a television set equipped with an adapter DVB integrated or to a television set connected to an external adapter be consulted on the site, topic “Check your connections” in the part “How to make?”

Can I record a chain DVB while looking at another program?

It is possible to record a program on a chain of the DVB while looking at another chain, provided that your adapter is equipped with a double tuner, only able to allow this operation.

Why doesn't one have electronic guide of the programs for the chains of the DVB?

Currently, the chains of the DVB have as an obligation to inform their televiewers on the program in progress and the following program. They do not have the obligation to create a guide electronic of the programs comparable with what can exist at other distributors (cable or satellite in particular), with a vision over several days and for the whole of the chains of the DVB.

In DVB, the guides current “are reconstituted” by the various terminals put on sale on the market (TV connected or not) on the basis of related information at the programs which the editors diffuse. These mentions are limited by nature because they depend, on the one hand, of the regulation framework in force - who do not aim the edition of a service of autonomous guide of the programs but rather the enrichment of the programs of a chain by information on the program in progress and le/les following programs - and, on the other hand, by the fact that these information are disseminated on the own resource of each authorized service, which is not extensible. However, the CSA reflects in the manner of improving information which is displayed by the chains on their programs.

With regard to a possible autonomous service of electronic guide of the programs, a preliminary work of indentification of the hertzian resource is necessary as well as a reflection on its contents. From a point of view technical and legal, such a guide can be considered only after one call for candidate and on a hertzian resource dedicated, which places this service in competition with other projects or uses of the hertzian resource.

I would like to consult the convention of a chain. Is this possible?

The specifications of France Televisions and conventions of the private channels of the DVB or diffused by other networks were put online on this site.
Conventions of the local chains are consultable at the CSA (Tel. : 01 40 58 38 00).

Consult the books of the missions and loads of the public channels.

Consult conventions of the private channels.

Who imposes on the TV channels the quotas diffusion of European works and French original expression?

It is not the CSA which imposes quotas of diffusion on all the services of television, including with those which are diffused only by cable and satellite: it is the law in force on the audio-visual one which fixes these proportions at 60% of European works and 40% of works of French original expression. The CSA is in charge of the application of these texts, with like only latitude being able to modulate the “rise in load” of the quotas during the first five years of existence of the chains sets of themes, which it practically always accepts. 
It is under the terms of these texts that an officially agreed chain in France, even if it chose a very specific “positioning” (Japanese cartoons, American westerns, Brazilian serials, etc), could not offer more than 40% of nonEuropean programs. These Japanese, American or Brazilian programs would constitute its originality, but it could not be satisfied to diffuse these only programs.

These legal tendencies and lawful are founded on the will, expressed by the Parliament and all the Governments, to preserve our cultural identity and to develop our industry of audiovisual programmes. So that the CSA can adapt the obligations of each chain to his characteristics, they are not conventions only it signs with the companies of television which would have to be changed, it is the law.

Why the TV channels have do to invest in the production of cinematographic works and audio-visual French and European?

The TV channels have since 1984 obligations of investment in the production of cinematographic works and audio-visual French and European. Moreover, a tax is taken on their turnover to support the sector of the production.

The investment in the film production relates to the chains which diffuse more than 52 films a year. The investment in the audiovisual production is required those which diffuse more than 20% of audio-visual works in the year, as with the hertzian chains whose turnover is higher than 350 M€.

The tax taken on their turnover is versed with the Account of support for the programmes industry audio-visual (COSIP), whose receipts are distributed between the various actors of the sector. These measurements meet economic and cultural aims.

France, with the 7th world rank of the production of films

The sector of the audiovisual production and cinematographic represents a considerable share of the French economy. France is located at the 7th world rank for the production of films and the only sector of audio-visual represented, in 2010, 238,500 employment (figures of the National centre of cinematography and the animated image). The chains take part thus directly in the structuring of the economic industrial sector and of audio-visual and the cinema.

The cultural objective is double. On the one hand, it is a question of supporting French creations. The National centre of the cinema and the animated image (CNC) states to have approved the first 65 films each year between 2001 and 2010, of which more than 30% of the financing came from television. It is then a question of promoting French works. Thus, the chains have quotas of diffusion of European works and French original expression to respect. The cultural objective thus corresponds to the constitution and the safeguard of an audio-visual heritage and cinematographic, in the logic of the “cultural exception” which aims at supporting the national and European sector of the culture and artistic creation.

This device initially answered the wish to make these investments one of the counterparts of the granting to the chains of free hertzian frequencies. It was then extended to the chains of the cable, the satellite and other networks, in the idea that any service which could benefit from audio-visual creation was to invest there upstream.

The system applies today also to the services of audio-visual mediums to request (SMAD). The sector being still under development, the standard level is less.

Here like elsewhere, the Council plays a part of “day before”. After having registered in conventions of the chains their commitments as regards investment in creation, in accordance with the decrees and the professional agreements, it makes sure that they are respected. Each year, he takes stock of it.